4.3.4Relatieve technologie-specialisatiepatronen

Octrooien worden doorgaans geklasseerd op basis van de technologiedomeinen waartoe ze behoren. Voor deze analyses hebben we de nomenclatuur en de bijbehorende IPC-klasse (d.i. de ‘International Patent Classification’-indeling) aggregaten gebruikt zoals die ontwikkeld werden door het Fraunhofer Gesellschaft - Institut für Systemtechniek und Innovationsforschung (FhG-ISI, Duitsland) in samenwerking met het Franse Octrooibureau (INPI) en het Observatoire des Sciences et Technologies (OST, Parijs). Deze classificatie werd geactualiseerd naar aanleiding van de introductie van de achtste herziening van de IPC-classificatie (ingevoerd in 2006), wat leidde tot een classificatie in 35 technologiedomeinen. De relatieve verdeling van EPO-octrooiaanvragen voor Vlaanderen en België over deze 35 technologiedomeinen is weergegeven in Tabel 11. Octrooien die binnen meerdere technologiedomeinen gesitueerd zijn, worden éénmaal toegewezen aan elk domein volgens het zogenaamde ‘full count’ principe.

Tabel 11. Distributie van Belgische en Vlaamse EPO-octrooiaanvragen over 35 Fraunhofer technologiedomeinen, periode 2007-2016

FhG35TECHNOLOGIEDOMEIN (originele Fraunhofer benaming)AANDEEL - BELGIËAANDEEL -VLAANDEREN
1Electrical machinery, apparatus, energy3.86%3.57%
2Audio-visual technology1.40%1.73%
3Telecommunications2.81%3.54%
4Digital communication2.61%3.30%
5Basic communication processes0.58%0.77%
6Computer technology3.19%4.01%
7IT methods for management0.72%0.75%
8Semiconductors2.66%3.21%
9Optics2.03%2.38%
10Measurement3.08%3.34%
11Analysis of biological materials1.35%1.43%
12Control0.92%1.04%
13Medical technology3.59%3.58%
14Organic fine chemistry3.83%3.18%
15Biotechnology3.90%4.06%
16Pharmaceuticals6.22%6.39%
17Macromolecular chemistry, polymers5.41%4.71%
18Food chemistry1.94%2.29%
19Basic materials chemistry5.73%5.86%
20Materials, metallurgy3.14%1.99%
21Surface technology, coating2.82%2.58%
22Micro-structure and nano-technology0.32%0.36%
23Chemical engineering3.56%3.53%
24Environmental technology1.81%1.74%
25Handling2.79%3.07%
26Machine tools1.43%1.41%
27Engines, pumps, turbines1.76%1.14%
28Textile and paper machines2.36%2.90%
29Other special machines6.28%6.70%
30Thermal processes and apparatus2.36%1.62%
31Mechanical elements1.87%1.93%
32Transport3.71%3.04%
33Furniture, games2.05%1.85%
34Other consumer goods3.91%2.52%
35Civil engineering4.01%4.50%
FhG35TECHNOLOGIEDOMEIN (originele Fraunhofer benaming)AANDEEL - BELGIËAANDEEL -VLAANDEREN
1Electrical machinery, apparatus, energy3.86%3.57%
2Audio-visual technology1.40%1.73%
3Telecommunications2.81%3.54%
4Digital communication2.61%3.30%
5Basic communication processes0.58%0.77%
6Computer technology3.19%4.01%
7IT methods for management0.72%0.75%
8Semiconductors2.66%3.21%
9Optics2.03%2.38%
10Measurement3.08%3.34%
11Analysis of biological materials1.35%1.43%
12Control0.92%1.04%
13Medical technology3.59%3.58%
14Organic fine chemistry3.83%3.18%
15Biotechnology3.90%4.06%
16Pharmaceuticals6.22%6.39%
17Macromolecular chemistry, polymers5.41%4.71%
18Food chemistry1.94%2.29%
19Basic materials chemistry5.73%5.86%
20Materials, metallurgy3.14%1.99%
21Surface technology, coating2.82%2.58%
22Micro-structure and nano-technology0.32%0.36%
23Chemical engineering3.56%3.53%
24Environmental technology1.81%1.74%
25Handling2.79%3.07%
26Machine tools1.43%1.41%
27Engines, pumps, turbines1.76%1.14%
28Textile and paper machines2.36%2.90%
29Other special machines6.28%6.70%
30Thermal processes and apparatus2.36%1.62%
31Mechanical elements1.87%1.93%
32Transport3.71%3.04%
33Furniture, games2.05%1.85%
34Other consumer goods3.91%2.52%
35Civil engineering4.01%4.50%
FhG35TECHNOLOGIEDOMEIN (originele Fraunhofer benaming)AANDEEL - BELGIËAANDEEL -VLAANDEREN
1Electrical machinery, apparatus, energy3.86%3.57%
2Audio-visual technology1.40%1.73%
3Telecommunications2.81%3.54%
4Digital communication2.61%3.30%
5Basic communication processes0.58%0.77%
6Computer technology3.19%4.01%
7IT methods for management0.72%0.75%
8Semiconductors2.66%3.21%
9Optics2.03%2.38%
10Measurement3.08%3.34%
11Analysis of biological materials1.35%1.43%
12Control0.92%1.04%
13Medical technology3.59%3.58%
14Organic fine chemistry3.83%3.18%
15Biotechnology3.90%4.06%
16Pharmaceuticals6.22%6.39%
17Macromolecular chemistry, polymers5.41%4.71%
18Food chemistry1.94%2.29%
19Basic materials chemistry5.73%5.86%
20Materials, metallurgy3.14%1.99%
21Surface technology, coating2.82%2.58%
22Micro-structure and nano-technology0.32%0.36%
23Chemical engineering3.56%3.53%
24Environmental technology1.81%1.74%
25Handling2.79%3.07%
26Machine tools1.43%1.41%
27Engines, pumps, turbines1.76%1.14%
28Textile and paper machines2.36%2.90%
29Other special machines6.28%6.70%
30Thermal processes and apparatus2.36%1.62%
31Mechanical elements1.87%1.93%
32Transport3.71%3.04%
33Furniture, games2.05%1.85%
34Other consumer goods3.91%2.52%
35Civil engineering4.01%4.50%

Tabel 12. Distributie van Belgische en Vlaamse USPTO-octrooien over 35 Fraunhofer technologiedomeinen, periode 2007-2016

FhG35TECHNOLOGIEDOMEIN (originele Fraunhofer benaming)AANDEEL - BELGIËAANDEEL -VLAANDEREN
1Electrical machinery, apparatus, energy3.72%3.84%
2Audio-visual technology2.24%2.80%
3Telecommunications3.27%3.71%
4Digital communication3.04%2.99%
5Basic communication processes1.31%1.66%
6Computer technology5.94%6.36%
7IT methods for management0.60%0.41%
8Semiconductors5.58%7.06%
9Optics2.43%2.87%
10Measurement3.96%4.36%
11Analysis of biological materials1.71%1.79%
12Control1.12%1.10%
13Medical technology3.76%3.60%
14Organic fine chemistry4.97%4.86%
15Biotechnology1.84%1.91%
16Pharmaceuticals9.88%9.40%
17Macromolecular chemistry, polymers5.60%4.98%
18Food chemistry1.12%1.34%
19Basic materials chemistry 5.29%5.00%
20Materials, metallurgy1.98%1.41%
21Surface technology, coating3.71%3.60%
22Micro-structure and nano-technology0.61%0.63%
23Chemical engineering4.36%4.00%
24Environmental technology1.58%1.46%
25Handling1.59%1.46%
26Machine tools1.72%1.68%
27Engines, pumps, turbines1.34%0.88%
28Textile and paper machines1.81%2.12%
29Other special machines4.24%3.97%
30Thermal processes and apparatus0.85%0.71%
31Mechanical elements1.70%1.83%
32Transport2.38%1.79%
33Furniture, games1.13%1.00%
34Other consumer goods1.54%1.41%
35Civil engineering2.05%2.05%
FhG35TECHNOLOGIEDOMEIN (originele Fraunhofer benaming)AANDEEL - BELGIËAANDEEL -VLAANDEREN
1Electrical machinery, apparatus, energy3.72%3.84%
2Audio-visual technology2.24%2.80%
3Telecommunications3.27%3.71%
4Digital communication3.04%2.99%
5Basic communication processes1.31%1.66%
6Computer technology5.94%6.36%
7IT methods for management0.60%0.41%
8Semiconductors5.58%7.06%
9Optics2.43%2.87%
10Measurement3.96%4.36%
11Analysis of biological materials1.71%1.79%
12Control1.12%1.10%
13Medical technology3.76%3.60%
14Organic fine chemistry4.97%4.86%
15Biotechnology1.84%1.91%
16Pharmaceuticals9.88%9.40%
17Macromolecular chemistry, polymers5.60%4.98%
18Food chemistry1.12%1.34%
19Basic materials chemistry 5.29%5.00%
20Materials, metallurgy1.98%1.41%
21Surface technology, coating3.71%3.60%
22Micro-structure and nano-technology0.61%0.63%
23Chemical engineering4.36%4.00%
24Environmental technology1.58%1.46%
25Handling1.59%1.46%
26Machine tools1.72%1.68%
27Engines, pumps, turbines1.34%0.88%
28Textile and paper machines1.81%2.12%
29Other special machines4.24%3.97%
30Thermal processes and apparatus0.85%0.71%
31Mechanical elements1.70%1.83%
32Transport2.38%1.79%
33Furniture, games1.13%1.00%
34Other consumer goods1.54%1.41%
35Civil engineering2.05%2.05%
FhG35TECHNOLOGIEDOMEIN (originele Fraunhofer benaming)AANDEEL - BELGIËAANDEEL -VLAANDEREN
1Electrical machinery, apparatus, energy3.72%3.84%
2Audio-visual technology2.24%2.80%
3Telecommunications3.27%3.71%
4Digital communication3.04%2.99%
5Basic communication processes1.31%1.66%
6Computer technology5.94%6.36%
7IT methods for management0.60%0.41%
8Semiconductors5.58%7.06%
9Optics2.43%2.87%
10Measurement3.96%4.36%
11Analysis of biological materials1.71%1.79%
12Control1.12%1.10%
13Medical technology3.76%3.60%
14Organic fine chemistry4.97%4.86%
15Biotechnology1.84%1.91%
16Pharmaceuticals9.88%9.40%
17Macromolecular chemistry, polymers5.60%4.98%
18Food chemistry1.12%1.34%
19Basic materials chemistry 5.29%5.00%
20Materials, metallurgy1.98%1.41%
21Surface technology, coating3.71%3.60%
22Micro-structure and nano-technology0.61%0.63%
23Chemical engineering4.36%4.00%
24Environmental technology1.58%1.46%
25Handling1.59%1.46%
26Machine tools1.72%1.68%
27Engines, pumps, turbines1.34%0.88%
28Textile and paper machines1.81%2.12%
29Other special machines4.24%3.97%
30Thermal processes and apparatus0.85%0.71%
31Mechanical elements1.70%1.83%
32Transport2.38%1.79%
33Furniture, games1.13%1.00%
34Other consumer goods1.54%1.41%
35Civil engineering2.05%2.05%

De belangrijkste technologiedomeinen waarin Vlaamse en Belgische EPO-octrooiaanvragen zich situeren zijn Andere Speciale Machines, Farmacie en Chemie. Een analoge profilering, maar waarbij ook Halfgeleiders en Computertechnologie zich bij de top domeinen voegen, wordt bekomen voor USPTO-octrooien in Vlaanderen en België De belangrijkste technologiedomeinen waarin Vlaamse en Belgische EPO-octrooiaanvragen zich situeren zijn Andere Speciale Machines, Farmacie en Chemie. Een analoge profilering, maar waarbij ook Halfgeleiders en Computertechnologie zich bij de top domeinen voegen, wordt bekomen voor USPTO-octrooien in Vlaanderen en België  (zie Tabel 12).

Een volgend belangrijk aandachtspunt betreft de relatieve sterkte of zwakte van de beschouwde technologiedomeinen in Vlaanderen en België, ten opzichte van belangrijke referentielanden. Om deze te meten, wordt gebruik gemaakt van relatieve specialisatie-indexen op niveau van technologieklassen (op basis van de geaggregeerde IPC-indeling zoals voorgeschreven door de eerder vermelde Fraunhofer-nomenclatuur). Deze relatieve specialisatie-indexen (i.e. de RTA’s) worden als volgt berekend:

\(RTA_{ij} = \frac{\frac{P_{ij}}{ \Sigma_iP_{ij}}}{\frac{\Sigma_jP_{ij}}{ \Sigma_{ij}P_{ij}}}\)

  • met i = 1 ... N (N = het aantal klassen in de studie: Fraunhofertechnologiedomeinen);
  • met j = 1 ... M (M = het aantal landen in de studie)
  • met Pij = het aantal octrooien in domein i in land j

Deze index geeft met andere woorden het aandeel weer van technologiedomein i in land j, ten opzichte van het aandeel van technologiedomein i in alle landen. Voor de berekening van de index wordt rekening gehouden met alle octrooien van land j en met alle octrooien over alle landen en categorieën heen. Als referentiegroep worden in deze analyse de EU-15 landen opgenomen, alsook de VS, Canada, Zwitserland, Japan en Korea. Deze index vergelijkt derhalve het aandeel van een bepaald technologiedomeinen in Belgische/Vlaamse octrooien met het aandeel van dit domein in andere landen. De waarde van deze relatieve specialisatie-indices varieert van [0; ∞]. Een waarde kleiner dan 1 betekent dat land j een relatief nadeel heeft in de betreffende categorie i. Waarden gelijk aan 1 stemmen overeen met de neutrale positie van de index, terwijl waarden groter dan 1 duiden op een relatief voordeel (i.e. een relatieve domeinspecialisatie). De index corrigeert voor de ‘grootte’ van het technologiedomein en is dus erg geschikt voor het maken van vergelijkingen en het in kaart brengen van veranderingen over tijdsperiodes, net als voor het aangeven van de veranderingen in niveaus van specialisaties van een land of een groep van landen. De gerapporteerde RTA-analyses werden uitgevoerd op EPO-aanvragen en op toegekende USPTO-octrooien. Gezien beide databronnen tot analoge conclusies leiden, rapporteren we hier enkel de EPO-resultaten.

Tabel 13. RTA-waarden voor EPO-aanvragen voor de periode 2007-2016 op basis van 35 Fraunhofer technologiedomeinen ten opzichte van de referentiegroep

RTABEVLATCACHDEDKESFIFRGBGRIEITJPKRLUNLPTSEUS
Electrical machinery, apparatus, energy0.610.571.340.651.051.190.960.870.700.930.810.680.540.831.391.610.761.080.320.660.71
Audio-visual technology0.530.650.691.040.530.641.580.391.070.770.700.380.770.341.802.880.451.040.430.800.81
Telecommunications0.470.590.302.290.280.420.530.683.091.121.110.891.270.331.022.520.640.650.672.661.09
Digital communication0.760.960.322.440.300.490.380.932.951.311.020.831.840.370.701.850.560.661.032.851.22
Basic communication processes0.710.930.751.400.850.710.540.501.241.141.401.041.150.521.031.060.461.630.371.291.07
Computer technology0.540.680.431.800.510.540.390.501.540.950.950.671.550.310.991.880.490.990.680.951.41
IT methods for management0.640.660.452.210.640.470.330.741.510.881.151.363.460.540.621.160.880.561.000.791.73
Semiconductors1.121.350.980.390.530.730.260.400.440.840.690.580.690.421.842.210.631.170.500.260.90
Optics0.830.970.530.770.520.570.450.360.410.770.680.380.540.362.251.850.841.120.560.360.86
Measurement0.640.690.970.931.631.080.820.550.871.101.200.590.790.700.950.540.451.460.860.840.96
Analysis of biological materials1.061.120.991.371.570.731.061.480.640.961.441.761.460.670.700.500.390.991.500.931.30
Control0.490.561.351.031.001.230.751.160.750.911.120.921.181.000.900.580.650.801.681.221.01
Medical technology0.610.610.700.781.400.791.340.730.430.581.041.122.580.820.640.430.771.260.870.881.59
Organic fine chemistry1.581.310.440.611.381.090.431.230.271.391.121.630.730.800.810.530.661.331.480.231.06
Biotechnology1.801.870.910.901.220.752.741.520.530.981.131.001.140.530.590.560.611.182.040.621.38
Pharmaceuticals1.341.380.761.331.780.611.571.940.271.001.312.401.781.020.480.470.820.711.710.731.48
Macromolecular chemistry, polymers2.071.801.440.551.130.990.330.660.980.810.570.560.450.921.270.721.171.310.890.380.99
Food chemistry2.052.420.410.982.220.632.982.000.671.061.332.041.201.230.530.310.922.911.710.470.96
Basic materials chemistry 1.681.720.580.611.011.030.740.890.560.811.241.020.630.560.990.480.671.440.880.281.18
Materials, metallurgy1.490.951.610.740.831.030.621.160.771.050.730.740.680.741.530.762.580.690.850.730.81
Surface technology, coating1.441.311.110.700.981.080.620.820.870.850.711.420.670.821.370.621.510.670.950.620.98
Micro-structure and nano-technology1.061.160.471.070.940.610.371.331.211.300.990.251.410.481.051.350.200.981.180.781.22
Chemical engineering1.241.230.950.901.151.191.100.890.960.961.091.130.801.170.790.650.611.221.230.970.98
Environmental technology1.191.141.200.970.851.121.110.901.161.051.021.770.621.031.130.541.241.231.021.010.84
Handling1.001.101.500.601.881.331.181.601.710.940.981.140.542.570.660.330.841.091.270.890.71
Machine tools0.640.632.180.531.141.730.500.880.750.740.731.770.471.771.020.310.980.430.891.190.69
Engines, pumps, turbines0.500.330.790.610.721.412.911.000.471.001.240.690.411.071.030.322.460.390.550.810.94
Textile and paper machines1.341.651.280.571.251.110.651.022.000.600.690.700.791.311.500.360.910.850.950.760.78
Other special machines1.831.951.420.891.021.231.391.240.751.090.821.330.761.620.800.421.881.281.320.800.84
Thermal processes and apparatus1.330.911.660.530.981.471.552.070.960.970.730.910.702.050.891.271.510.741.921.040.57
Mechanical elements0.560.591.440.610.781.741.020.870.601.140.990.560.431.450.950.361.110.620.621.480.64
Transport0.780.641.040.540.661.490.401.210.421.650.810.480.251.261.320.452.230.500.681.260.56
Furniture, games1.201.082.150.891.391.201.041.670.590.991.300.861.072.790.430.920.651.222.171.090.78
Other consumer goods1.951.261.140.611.281.230.591.560.401.011.150.770.372.870.571.711.590.781.430.720.74
Civil engineering1.401.572.260.900.911.412.251.631.151.251.402.051.012.010.300.351.591.542.131.100.71
RTABEVLATCACHDEDKESFIFRGBGRIEITJPKRLUNLPTSEUS
Electrical machinery, apparatus, energy0.610.571.340.651.051.190.960.870.700.930.810.680.540.831.391.610.761.080.320.660.71
Audio-visual technology0.530.650.691.040.530.641.580.391.070.770.700.380.770.341.802.880.451.040.430.800.81
Telecommunications0.470.590.302.290.280.420.530.683.091.121.110.891.270.331.022.520.640.650.672.661.09
Digital communication0.760.960.322.440.300.490.380.932.951.311.020.831.840.370.701.850.560.661.032.851.22
Basic communication processes0.710.930.751.400.850.710.540.501.241.141.401.041.150.521.031.060.461.630.371.291.07
Computer technology0.540.680.431.800.510.540.390.501.540.950.950.671.550.310.991.880.490.990.680.951.41
IT methods for management0.640.660.452.210.640.470.330.741.510.881.151.363.460.540.621.160.880.561.000.791.73
Semiconductors1.121.350.980.390.530.730.260.400.440.840.690.580.690.421.842.210.631.170.500.260.90
Optics0.830.970.530.770.520.570.450.360.410.770.680.380.540.362.251.850.841.120.560.360.86
Measurement0.640.690.970.931.631.080.820.550.871.101.200.590.790.700.950.540.451.460.860.840.96
Analysis of biological materials1.061.120.991.371.570.731.061.480.640.961.441.761.460.670.700.500.390.991.500.931.30
Control0.490.561.351.031.001.230.751.160.750.911.120.921.181.000.900.580.650.801.681.221.01
Medical technology0.610.610.700.781.400.791.340.730.430.581.041.122.580.820.640.430.771.260.870.881.59
Organic fine chemistry1.581.310.440.611.381.090.431.230.271.391.121.630.730.800.810.530.661.331.480.231.06
Biotechnology1.801.870.910.901.220.752.741.520.530.981.131.001.140.530.590.560.611.182.040.621.38
Pharmaceuticals1.341.380.761.331.780.611.571.940.271.001.312.401.781.020.480.470.820.711.710.731.48
Macromolecular chemistry, polymers2.071.801.440.551.130.990.330.660.980.810.570.560.450.921.270.721.171.310.890.380.99
Food chemistry2.052.420.410.982.220.632.982.000.671.061.332.041.201.230.530.310.922.911.710.470.96
Basic materials chemistry 1.681.720.580.611.011.030.740.890.560.811.241.020.630.560.990.480.671.440.880.281.18
Materials, metallurgy1.490.951.610.740.831.030.621.160.771.050.730.740.680.741.530.762.580.690.850.730.81
Surface technology, coating1.441.311.110.700.981.080.620.820.870.850.711.420.670.821.370.621.510.670.950.620.98
Micro-structure and nano-technology1.061.160.471.070.940.610.371.331.211.300.990.251.410.481.051.350.200.981.180.781.22
Chemical engineering1.241.230.950.901.151.191.100.890.960.961.091.130.801.170.790.650.611.221.230.970.98
Environmental technology1.191.141.200.970.851.121.110.901.161.051.021.770.621.031.130.541.241.231.021.010.84
Handling1.001.101.500.601.881.331.181.601.710.940.981.140.542.570.660.330.841.091.270.890.71
Machine tools0.640.632.180.531.141.730.500.880.750.740.731.770.471.771.020.310.980.430.891.190.69
Engines, pumps, turbines0.500.330.790.610.721.412.911.000.471.001.240.690.411.071.030.322.460.390.550.810.94
Textile and paper machines1.341.651.280.571.251.110.651.022.000.600.690.700.791.311.500.360.910.850.950.760.78
Other special machines1.831.951.420.891.021.231.391.240.751.090.821.330.761.620.800.421.881.281.320.800.84
Thermal processes and apparatus1.330.911.660.530.981.471.552.070.960.970.730.910.702.050.891.271.510.741.921.040.57
Mechanical elements0.560.591.440.610.781.741.020.870.601.140.990.560.431.450.950.361.110.620.621.480.64
Transport0.780.641.040.540.661.490.401.210.421.650.810.480.251.261.320.452.230.500.681.260.56
Furniture, games1.201.082.150.891.391.201.041.670.590.991.300.861.072.790.430.920.651.222.171.090.78
Other consumer goods1.951.261.140.611.281.230.591.560.401.011.150.770.372.870.571.711.590.781.430.720.74
Civil engineering1.401.572.260.900.911.412.251.631.151.251.402.051.012.010.300.351.591.542.131.100.71
RTABEVLATCACHDEDKESFIFRGBGRIEITJPKRLUNLPTSEUS
Electrical machinery, apparatus, energy0.610.571.340.651.051.190.960.870.700.930.810.680.540.831.391.610.761.080.320.660.71
Audio-visual technology0.530.650.691.040.530.641.580.391.070.770.700.380.770.341.802.880.451.040.430.800.81
Telecommunications0.470.590.302.290.280.420.530.683.091.121.110.891.270.331.022.520.640.650.672.661.09
Digital communication0.760.960.322.440.300.490.380.932.951.311.020.831.840.370.701.850.560.661.032.851.22
Basic communication processes0.710.930.751.400.850.710.540.501.241.141.401.041.150.521.031.060.461.630.371.291.07
Computer technology0.540.680.431.800.510.540.390.501.540.950.950.671.550.310.991.880.490.990.680.951.41
IT methods for management0.640.660.452.210.640.470.330.741.510.881.151.363.460.540.621.160.880.561.000.791.73
Semiconductors1.121.350.980.390.530.730.260.400.440.840.690.580.690.421.842.210.631.170.500.260.90
Optics0.830.970.530.770.520.570.450.360.410.770.680.380.540.362.251.850.841.120.560.360.86
Measurement0.640.690.970.931.631.080.820.550.871.101.200.590.790.700.950.540.451.460.860.840.96
Analysis of biological materials1.061.120.991.371.570.731.061.480.640.961.441.761.460.670.700.500.390.991.500.931.30
Control0.490.561.351.031.001.230.751.160.750.911.120.921.181.000.900.580.650.801.681.221.01
Medical technology0.610.610.700.781.400.791.340.730.430.581.041.122.580.820.640.430.771.260.870.881.59
Organic fine chemistry1.581.310.440.611.381.090.431.230.271.391.121.630.730.800.810.530.661.331.480.231.06
Biotechnology1.801.870.910.901.220.752.741.520.530.981.131.001.140.530.590.560.611.182.040.621.38
Pharmaceuticals1.341.380.761.331.780.611.571.940.271.001.312.401.781.020.480.470.820.711.710.731.48
Macromolecular chemistry, polymers2.071.801.440.551.130.990.330.660.980.810.570.560.450.921.270.721.171.310.890.380.99
Food chemistry2.052.420.410.982.220.632.982.000.671.061.332.041.201.230.530.310.922.911.710.470.96
Basic materials chemistry 1.681.720.580.611.011.030.740.890.560.811.241.020.630.560.990.480.671.440.880.281.18
Materials, metallurgy1.490.951.610.740.831.030.621.160.771.050.730.740.680.741.530.762.580.690.850.730.81
Surface technology, coating1.441.311.110.700.981.080.620.820.870.850.711.420.670.821.370.621.510.670.950.620.98
Micro-structure and nano-technology1.061.160.471.070.940.610.371.331.211.300.990.251.410.481.051.350.200.981.180.781.22
Chemical engineering1.241.230.950.901.151.191.100.890.960.961.091.130.801.170.790.650.611.221.230.970.98
Environmental technology1.191.141.200.970.851.121.110.901.161.051.021.770.621.031.130.541.241.231.021.010.84
Handling1.001.101.500.601.881.331.181.601.710.940.981.140.542.570.660.330.841.091.270.890.71
Machine tools0.640.632.180.531.141.730.500.880.750.740.731.770.471.771.020.310.980.430.891.190.69
Engines, pumps, turbines0.500.330.790.610.721.412.911.000.471.001.240.690.411.071.030.322.460.390.550.810.94
Textile and paper machines1.341.651.280.571.251.110.651.022.000.600.690.700.791.311.500.360.910.850.950.760.78
Other special machines1.831.951.420.891.021.231.391.240.751.090.821.330.761.620.800.421.881.281.320.800.84
Thermal processes and apparatus1.330.911.660.530.981.471.552.070.960.970.730.910.702.050.891.271.510.741.921.040.57
Mechanical elements0.560.591.440.610.781.741.020.870.601.140.990.560.431.450.950.361.110.620.621.480.64
Transport0.780.641.040.540.661.490.401.210.421.650.810.480.251.261.320.452.230.500.681.260.56
Furniture, games1.201.082.150.891.391.201.041.670.590.991.300.861.072.790.430.920.651.222.171.090.78
Other consumer goods1.951.261.140.611.281.230.591.560.401.011.150.770.372.870.571.711.590.781.430.720.74
Civil engineering1.401.572.260.900.911.412.251.631.151.251.402.051.012.010.300.351.591.542.131.100.71

Uit de RTA-analyses in Tabel 13 blijkt dat Vlaanderen vooral een relatief sterke technologische positie (RTA > 1,5) heeft opgebouwd in de Chemische domeinen en in Biotechnologie, alsook in Andere Speciale Machines en Textiel & Papier.

In Figuur 7 vergelijken we de relatieve technologische specialisatie (de RTA-maten) voor Vlaanderen met de economische specialisatie. Deze laatste wordt gemeten aan de hand van economische performantie per sector, berekend via exportgegevens. Voor economische specialisatie wordt een analoge index berekend als de RTA: de ‘Relative Commercial Advantage’ of de RCA-index. Een RCA-waarde > 1 duidt op een proportioneel grotere export-intensiteit van de betreffende sector in de totale Vlaamse/Belgische export, ten opzichte van de proportie voor dezelfde sector binnen referentielanden. Een RCA-waarde < 1 duidt dan op een relatief lagere export-intensiteit voor de betreffende sector in Vlaanderen/België, vergeleken met de landen uit de referentiegroep. Voor de meeste domeinen liggen technologische en economische specialisatiegraden in elkaars verlengde (hoog voor Chemie en Vervaardiging van Voedingsmiddelen; laag voor Vervaardiging van Leer en Producten van Leer, Vervaardiging van Meubelen, Andere Transportmiddelen). Enkele uitzonderingen zijn Farmacie, Vervaardiging van Dranken en Pulp- en papierproducten: de technologische specialisatie in Vlaanderen is hier aanzienlijk, maar lijkt zich niet in dezelfde mate te vertalen naar een economische specialisatie. De domeinen Motorvoertuigen; Vervaardiging van Metalen en Overige Industrie neigen naar een omgekeerd profiel waarbij de hogere relatieve export-specialisatie contrasteert met een relatief beperkte specialisatie op technologisch gebied. Vervaardiging van Cokes & Geraffineerde Aardolieproducten wordt niet opgenomen in Figuur 7 omwille van het ontbreken van exportgegevens voor een aantal EU-landen, waardoor een vertekend beeld van de RCA- waarden ontstaat. Drukkerijen, reproductie van opgenomen media heeft de hoogste RTA- en RCA-waarden (2,16; 5,19), deze sector werd echter niet opgenomen in Figuur 7 om de andere sectoren duidelijker te visualiseren.

Figuur 7. Vlaamse Technologische versus Export Performantie(1) per Economische Sector (label: RTA waarde; RCA waarde)(2009-2015)

(1) Voor de berekening van de RCA en RTA waarden werden de gegevens van de volgende referentielanden en regio's gebruikt: Vlaanderen, België, Oostenrijk, Denemarken, Finland, Frankrijk, Duitsland, Griekenland, Ierland, Italië, Luxemburg, Nederland, Portugal, Spanje, Sweden en Verenigd Koninkrijk. NACE sector 19 (Vervaardiging van cokes en van geraffineerde aardolieproducten) wordt niet opgenomen in de grafiek. De reden is het ontbreken van export gegevens voor een aantal EU-landen, waardoor een vertekend beeld van de RCA waarden ontstaat. NACE sector 18 (Drukkerijen, reproductie van opgenomen media) heeft de hoogste RTA en RCA waarden (2,16; 5,19). Deze sector werd niet opgenomen in de grafiek om de andere sectoren duidelijker te visualiseren.